Novel Modelling Approaches to Characterize and Quantify Carryover Effects on Sensory Acceptability.
Sensory biases caused by the residual sensations of previously served samples are known as carryover effects (COE). Contrast and convergence effects are the two possible outcomes of carryover. COE can lead to misinterpretations of acceptability, due to the presence of intrinsic psychological/physiological biases. COE on sensory acceptability (hedonic liking) were characterized and quantified using mixed and nonlinear models. N = 540 subjects evaluated grape juice samples of different acceptability qualities (A = good, B = medium, C = poor) for the liking of color (C), taste (T), and overall (OL). Three models were used to quantify COE: (1) COE as an interaction effect; (2) COE as a residual effect; (3) COE proportional to the treatment effect. For (1), COE was stronger for C than T and OL, although COE was minimal. For (2), C showed higher estimates (−0.15 to +0.10) of COE than did T and OL (−0.09 to +0.07). COE mainly took the form of convergence. For (3), the absolute proportionality parameter estimate (λ) was higher for C than for T and OL (−0.155 vs. −0.004 to −0.039), which represented −15.46% of its direct treatment effect. Model (3) showed a significant COE for C. COE cannot be ignored as they may lead to the misinterpretation of sensory acceptability results.