Tasteless Soy Sauce Odor Can Induce and Enhance Saltiness Perception (IFT15).
Developing products that have reduced sodium content is an important alternative for consumers interested in reducing their daily sodium intake. An excessive amount of sodium in the human body is one factor leading to high blood pressure. The odor-induced saltiness enhancement (OISE) approach has been recently gained attention. However, no studies have reported saltiness recognition and saltiness difference thresholds of tasteless soy sauce odor (TSSO) in water or salt solutions.
The objective was to determine if TSSO could be used to induce and enhance salty taste perception in water and salt solution (0.02M NaCl) models, respectively. Hence, saltiness recognition and saltiness difference threshold values elicited by TSSO were determined.
Prior to the threshold studies, TSSO was first proven to be tasteless using a triangle test. The sensory threshold technique (ASTM E679-04, the ascending forced choice method of limits, 3-AFC test) was used to determine saltiness recognition threshold in water and difference threshold in 0.02M NaCl solution at 25°C. Ten panelists were screened and participated. Group best estimate threshold geometric means of TSSO were expressed as parts-per-billion (ppb). Three independent replicates were performed.
TSSO could induce salty taste perception in water with the saltiness recognition threshold of TSSO at 28.45 ppb. The percentage of panelists recognizing salty taste in the midrange of TSSO concentrations (40, 400 and 4,000 ppb) in water was 70%, 80%, and 96.7%, respectively. This indicated that TSSO imparted salty taste perception in water, and that increasing TSSO concentrations increased recognizable salty taste perception. Furthermore, TSSO enhanced salty taste perception in 0.02 M NaCl solution with the difference threshold of TSSO at 122.71 ppb.
Through the odour-taste interaction concept, this study demonstrated that TSSO could induce and enhance salty taste perception in water and salt solution models, respectively. This finding could be applied in development of low-sodium foods.